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dimanche 14 juillet 2013

Les Préludes .


Prelude No. 20 in C minor. This prelude, modified slightly, was used as the theme for variations in both Sergei Rachmaninoff's Variations on a Theme of Chopin and inFerruccio Busoni's Variations on a Theme of Chopin.
  1. Agitato – C major
  2. Lento – A minor
  3. Vivace – G major
  4. Largo – E minor
  5. Molto allegro – D major
  6. Lento assai – B minor
  7. Andantino – A major
  8. Molto agitato – F-sharp minor
  9. Largo – E major
  10. Molto allegro – C-sharp minor
  11. Vivace – B major
  12. Presto – G-sharp minor
  13. Lento – F-sharp major
  14. Allegro – E-flat minor
  15. Sostenuto – D-flat major ("Raindrop Prelude")
  16. Presto con fuoco – B-flat minor
  17. Allegretto – A-flat major
  18. Molto allegro – F minor
  19. Vivace – E-flat major
  20. Largo – C minor
  21. Cantabile – B-flat major
  22. Molto agitato – G minor
  23. Moderato – F major
  24. Allegro appassionato – D minor

Description and analysis[edit]

The following personal impressions of the pieces were given by Hans von Bülow.[5] They are not official, and certainly not named by Chopin, but are cited in various sources as mnemonics. Only No. 15 "Raindrop" is universally used, but No. 20 is often referred to as the "Chord" prelude.
1Reunionmarked agitato, is short and uniform with its triplet-semi-quaver figuration
2Presentiment of Deathan immediate contrast, with a slow melody over a fixed accompaniment of four-note chords played two eighth notes at a time
3Thou Art So Like a Flowermarked vivace and has a running semiquaver bass part throughout
4Suffocationwas played at his funeral. It consists of a slow melody in the right hand, that masterfully prolongs tonic resolution, and repeated block chords in the left hand, that descend chromatically. It is incorporated in conductor Benjamin Zander's TED Talk on music and passion.[9]
5Uncertaintycontains exuberant ostinati
6Tolling Bells(also played at Chopin's funeral) features its melancholy melody primarily in the left hand
7The Polish Danceris written in the style of a mazurka, in 3/4 time. It is the basis of Federico Mompou's Variations on a Theme of Chopin
8Desperationmolto agitato, is considered one of the most difficult in the set, featuring continuous thirty-second note figuration in the right hand, with semiquaver triplets (alternating with quavers) in the left hand. The entire piece employs a ceaseless figuration of polyrhythms.
9Visiona harmonically dense piece with a low "plodding" bass line; with 12 bars, it is the shortest in the collection
10The Night Mothmolto allegro, is short and light, with alternating triplet and non-triplet semiquavers in the right hand, over arpeggiato chords in the left
11The Dragonflyis in 6/8 time and is similarly brisk, with continuous quavers
12The Duelpresents a technical challenge with its rapid hold-and-release of quavers against crotchets in the right hand, involving much chromatic movement
13Losslento, is one of the longest preludes and features an A B A structure with continuous single-note quaver movement in the left hand and chords and melody in the right
14Fearrecalls Prelude No. 1 in its shortness and textural uniformity
15Raindropis the longest of the twenty-four. The main melody is repeated three times; the melody in the middle, however, is much more dark and dramatic. The key signature switches between D-flat major and C-sharp minor.
16Hadesstarts with six heavily accented chords before progressing to an impromptu-like passage in the right hand. The left hand mainly supports the right hand and repeats the same melody repeatedly. This piece is considered by many to be the most difficult of the set.
17A Scene on the Place de Notre-Dame de Parisis one of the longest and the favourite of some musicians including Clara SchumannMendelssohn wrote of it, "I love it! I cannot tell you how much or why; except perhaps that it is something which I could never at all have written."[10]
18Suicideis suggestive of a mortal struggle. The technical challenges lie chiefly in the irregular timing of the three runs, each faster than its predecessor, played simultaneously by each hand one octave apart. A fortissimo five-octave arpeggio echoes downward into the depths of the bass registers, where the final struggle takes place and culminates with the double-fortissimo chord finale.
19Heartfelt Happinessvivace, consists of widely spaced continuous triplet-quaver movement in both hands, which some pianists consider to rival the difficulty of No. 8 and No. 16.
20Funeral Marchis short, with slow majestic crotchet chords in the right hand predominating, against crotchet octaves in the left. It is often called the "Chord" prelude. It was originally written in two sections of four measures, although Chopin later added a repeat of the last four measures at a softer level, with an expressive swell before the final cadence. It has been used as a theme for variations by Ferruccio Busoni, and later (without the repeated bars) by Sergei Rachmaninoff in his Variations on a Theme of Chopin, a set of 22 variations in a wide range of keys, tempos and lengths.
21Sundayis marked cantabile, and features an easy melody in the right hand; the left has continuous doubled quavers characterized by chromatic movement, including chromatic nonharmonic tones,[11] taken up by the right hand also in the latter half of the piece
22Impatiencemolto agitato, is in 6/8 time; it begins with a characteristic dotted rhythm (quaver, dotted quaver, semiquaver) that Scriabin was later to make his own, in his early preludes that are perhaps the most important to emulate this genre of Chopin's
23A Pleasure Boatis spacious and melodic in the left hand, with running semiquavers throughout in the right

opens with a thundering five-note pattern in the left hand. Throughout the piece, the left hand continues this pattern as the right hand plays a powerful melody punctuated by trillsscales (including a rapid descending chromatic scale in thirds), and arpeggios. The piece closes with three booming unaccompanied notes – the lowest D on the piano.

24 The storm

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